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Mark A. Atkinson, Ph.D.


 Professor, American Diabetes Association, Eminent Scholar Chair

Atkinson - to use

UF Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine
College of Medicine
P.O. Box 100275
Gainesville, FL 32610

Office Address and Express Mail
UF Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine
College of Medicine
1600 SW Archer Road
Gainesville, FL 32610

Assistant: Teresa Keppel

  • Office: 352.273.9295

Professor Atkinson’s research is broad in scope but directed at identifying a prevention and/or cure for Type 1 (i.e., insulin-dependent, juvenile) diabetes. The key to achieving this goal is an improved understanding of the interactions between environmental, immunologic, and genetic factors that underlie the inability to form immunological tolerance to the insulin secreting pancreatic beta cells. To achieve this goal, our laboratory seeks to directly define methods (e.g., immunointervention with self-antigens, gene therapy) for disease prevention in non-diabetic subjects identified to be at increased risk for the disease or diabetic subjects through pancreatic transplantation in association with novel forms of immunotherapy.

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  1. *Atkinson, M.A.; Maclaren, N.K.; Riley, W.J.; Winter, W.E.; Fisk, D.D.; and Spillar, R.P.:  Are Insulin Autoantibodies, Markers for Insulin?Dependent Diabetes Mellitus? Diabetes 35, 1986, pp. 894-898.
  2. *Beppu, H.; Winter, W.E.; Atkinson, M.A.; Maclaren, N.K.; Fujita, K.; and Takahashi, H.: Bovine Albumin Antibodies in NOD Mice. Diabetes Research 6, 1987, pp. 67-69.
  3. *Maclaren, N.; Riley, W.; Skordis, N.; Atkinson, M.; Spillar, R.; Silverstein, J.; Klein, R.; and Rotter, J.: Inherited Susceptibility to Insulin Dependent Diabetes is Associated with HLA-DR 1, While DR5 is Protective. Autoimmunity 1, 1988, pp. 197-205.
  4. *Atkinson, M.A.; and Maclaren, N.K.: Autoantibodies in Non-Obese Diabetic Mice Immunoprecipitate an Mr 64,000 Islet Cell Antigen. Diabetes 37, 1988, pp. 1587-1590.
  5. *Atkinson, M.A.; Winter, W.E.; Skordis, N.K.; Beppu, H.; Riley, W.J.; and Maclaren, N.K.: The Effect of Diet on the Prevalence and Onset of Insulin Dependent Diabetes in the BB Rat. Autoimmunity 2, 1988, pp. 11-20. 
  6. *Riley, W.J.; Atkinson, M.A.; Schatz, D.A.; Maclaren, N.K.: Comparison of Islet Autoantibodies in “Pre-diabetes” and Recommendations for Screening. The Journal of Autoimmunity 3, 1990, pp. 47-52.
  7. *Atkinson, M.A.; Maclaren, N.K.; Holmes, L.A.; Scharp, D.W.; Lacy, P.E.; and Riley, W.J.: The Natural History and Predictive Value of Mr 64,000 Autoantibodies for Insulin Dependent Diabetes. The Journal of Autoimmunity 3, 1990, pp. 41-46.
  8. *Atkinson, M.A.; Maclaren, N.K.; Riley, W.J.; Scharp, D.W.; and Lacy, P.E.:  Mr 64,000 Autoantibodies as Predictors of Insulin Dependent Diabetes. The Lancet 335, 1990, pp. 1357-1360.
  9. Atkinson, M.A.; and Maclaren, N.K.: What Causes Diabetes?  Scientific American July 1990, pp. 62-67.
  10. *Atkinson, M.A.; N.K. Maclaren; Luchetta, R.; and Burr, I.: Prophylactic insulin therapy prevents Insulitis and Insulin Dependent Diabetes in Non-Obese Diabetic Mice. Diabetes 39, 1990, pp. 933-937.
  11. *Atkinson, M.A.; Maclaren, N.K.; and Scharp, D.W.: No Evidence for HSP 65 in Insulin Dependent Diabetes. The Lancet 336, 1990, pp. 1250-1251.
  12. *Atkinson, M.A.; Holmes, L.A.; Sharp, D.W.; Lacy, P.E.; and Maclaren, N.K.: No Evidence for Serological Autoimmunity Toward Islet Cell Heat Shock Proteins in Insulin Dependent Diabetes. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 87, 1991, pp. 721-724.
  13. *Kaufman, D.L.; Erlander, M.G.; Clare-Salzler, M.C.; Atkinson, M.A.; Maclaren, N.K.; and Tobin, A.J.: Autoimmunity to two forms of Glutamate Decarboxylase in Insulin Dependent Diabetes. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 89, 1992, pp. 283-292.
  14. *Atkinson, M.A.; Kaufman, D.L.; Campbell, L.; Gibbs, K.A.; Shah, S.C.; Bu, D.F.; Erlander, M.G.; Tobin, A.J.; and Maclaren, N.K.:  Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Respond to Glutamate Decarboxylase in Insulin Dependent Diabetes. The Lancet 339, 1992, pp. 548-549.
  15. Maclaren, N.K.; and Atkinson, M.A.: Is Insulin Dependent Diabetes Environmentally Induced? The New England Journal of Medicine  327, 1992, pp.348-349.
  16. *Atkinson, M.A.; Kaufman, D.L.; Tobin, A.J.; and Maclaren, N.K.: Islet Cell Autoantibodies Reactive to Glutamate Decarboxylase in Insulin Dependent Diabetes. The Journal of Clinical Investigation.  91, 1992, pp. 350-356.
  17. *Atkinson, M.A.; and Maclaren, N.K.: Islet Cell Autoantigens  Diabetes Reviews 1: 1993, pp. 191-203.
  18. *Huang, L.; Atkinson, M.A.; Dush, P.; and Kennedy, R.T.: Amperometric Monitoring of Individual Exocytosis Events in Pancreatic Beta Cells.  Analytical Chemistry  65, 1993, pp. 1882-1887.
  19. *Atkinson, M.A.; and Maclaren, N.K.:  Islet Cell Autoantigens in Insulin Dependent Diabetes. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 92: 1993, pp. 1608-1616.
  20. *Kaufman, D.L.; Clare-Salzler, M.C.; Sercarz, E.E.; Tobin, A.J.; Atkinson, M.A.; and Lehmann, P.: Spontaneous Loss of Self Tolerance to Glutamate Decarboxylase is a Key Event in the Pathogenesis of Murine Insulin-Dependent Diabetes. Nature 366: 1993, pp. 69-71.
  21. *Atkinson, M.A.; Bowman, M.A.; Kao, K.J.; Campbell, L.; Dush, P.J.; Simmel, O.; and Maclaren, N.K.: Lack of Immune Responses to Bovine Serum Albumin in Insulin Dependent Diabetes. The New England Journal of Medicine 329, 1993, pp. 1853-1858.
  22. *Bowman, M.A.; Leiter, E.H.; and Atkinson, M.A.: Prevention of Diabetes in the NOD Mouse: Implications for Therapeutic Intervention in Human Disease.  Immunology Today 15, 1994, pp. 115-120.
  23. Atkinson, M.A.; Kao, K.J.; and Maclaren, N.K.: Lack of Immunity to Bovine Serum Albumin in Insulin Dependent Diabetes. The New England Journal of Medicine 330, 1994, pp. 1616-1617.
  24. Leslie, R.D.G.;  and Atkinson, M.A.: Inverse Relation Between Humoral and Cellular Immunity to Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase in Insulin Dependent Diabetes.  The Journal of Endocrinological Investigation  17, 1994, pp.581-584
  25. *Atkinson, M.A.; Bowman, M.A.; Campbell, L.; Kaufman, D.L.; and Maclaren, N.K.: Cellular Immunity to a Determinant Common to Glutamate Decarboxylase and Coxsackie Virus in Insulin Dependent Diabetes. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 94, 1994, pp. 2125-2129.
  26. *Atkinson, M.A.; and Maclaren, N.K.:  The Pathogenesis of Insulin Dependent Diabetes. The New England Journal of Medicine  331, 1994, pp. 1428-1436.
  27. *Gerling, I.; Atkinson, M.A.; Leiter, E.H.:  The Thymus as a Site for Evaluating the Potency of Candidate b Cell Autoantigens in NOD mice. The Journal of Autoimmunity  7, 1994, pp. 851-858.
  28. *Schott, M.; Schatz, D.; Atkinson, M.; Krischer, J.; Mehta, H.; Vold, B.; Maclaren, N.: GAD65 Autoantibodies Increase the Predictability but not the Sensitivity of Islet Cell and Insulin Autoantibodies for Developing Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.  The Journal of Autoimmunity 7, 1994, pp. 865-872.
  29. Atkinson, M.A.; and Ellis, T.M.: Should We Replace Islet Cell Antibody Assay For The Prediction of Insulin Dependent Diabetes. Diabetes Prevention & Therapy 8, 1994, pp. 33-34.
  30. *Hanson, M.S.; Serreze, D.V.; and Atkinson, M.A. et al: Clonal Diversion of T Cell Responses from Th1 to Th2: A Possible Mechanism of Diabetes Resistance in NOD-EadTransgenic Mice.  Autoimmunity 21, 1995, pp. 52-56.
  31. Atkinson, M.A.; and Schatz, D.S.: Cow�s Milk and IDDM: Only Time Will Tell. Diabetes Prevention & Therapy  9, 1995, pp. 1-2.
  32. *Huang, L.; Shen, H.; Atkinson, M.A.; and Kennedy, R.T.: Detection of Exocytosis At Individual Pancreatic b cells by Amperometry at a Chemically Modified Microelectrode.   Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences, USA  92, 1995, pp. 9608-9612. 
  33. *Daw, K.; Ujihara, N.; Atkinson, M.A.; Powers, A.C.: Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Autoantibodies in Stiff-Man Syndrome and Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Exhibit Similarities and Differences in Epitope Recognition. The Journal of Immunology  156, 1996, pp. 818-825.
  34. *Ellis, T.M.; and Atkinson, M.A.: The Clinical Significance of an Autoimmune Responses against Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase. Nature Medicine 2, 1996, pp.148-153.
  35. *Bowman, M.A.; Campbell, L.; Darrow, B.; Suresh, A.; Clare-Salzler, M.; and Atkinson, M.A.: Immunologic and Metabolic Effects of Prophylactic Insulin Therapy in Insulin Dependent Diabetes. Diabetes 45, 1996, pp. 205-208.
  36. *Tian, J.; Atkinson, M.A.; Clare-Salzler, M.; Herschenfeld, A.; Forsthuber, T.; Lehmann, P.V.; and Kaufman, D.L.: Nasal Administration of Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD 65) Peptides Induces Th2 Responses and Prevents Murine Insulin-Dependent Diabetes. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 183, 1996, pp. 1561-1567.
  37. *Ellis, T.M.; and Atkinson, M.A.: Early Infant Diets and Insulin Dependent Diabetes. The Lancet  347, 1996, pp. 1464-1465.
  38. *Aanstoot, H.J.; Kim, J.; Knip, M.; Atkinson, M.A.; Mose-Larsen, P.; Fey, S.; Fu, Q.; Ludvigsson, J.; Landin, M.; Bruining, J.; Maclaren, N.K.; Akerblom, H.K.; and Baekkeskov, S.: Identification and Characterization of a 38kD pancreatic B-cell antigen which along with glutamic acid decarboxylase marks the early phases of autoimmune response in type 1 diabetes.  The Journal of Clinical  Investigation 97, 1996, pp. 2772-2783.
  39. *Hanson, M.S.; Cetkovic-Cvrlje, M.; Ramiya, V.K.; Atkinson, M.A.; Maclaren, N.K.; Singh, B.; Elliott, J.F.; Serreze, D.V.; and Leiter, E.K.: Quantitative Thresholds of MHC Class II I-E Expressed on Hematopoietically Derived APC in Transgenic NOD/Lt Mice Determine Levels of Diabetes Resistance and Indicate Mechanism of Protection. The Journal of Immunology 157, 1996, pp. 1279-1287. 
  40. *Bowman, M.A.; Simell, O.G.; Peck, A.B.; Cornelius, J.; Luchetta, R.; Look, Z.; Maclaren, N.K.; and Atkinson, M.A.: Pharmacokinetics of Aminoguanidine Administration and Effects on the Diabetes Frequency in Nonobese Diabetic Mice.  The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 279, 1996, pp. 790-794.
  41. *Maclaren, N.K.; and Atkinson, M.A.:  Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus:  the Hypothesis of Molecular Mimicry Between Islet Cell Antigens and Microorganisms. Molecular Medicine 3, 1997, pp. 76-83.
  42. *Atkinson, M.A.: Diet, Genetics, and Diabetes: The Role of Infant Nutrition in the Pathogenesis of Insulin Dependent Diabetes.  Food Technology 51, 1997, pp. 77-79.
  43. *Cetkovic-Cvrlje, M.; Gerling, I.C.; Muir, A.; Atkinson, M.A.; Elliot, J.F.; Leiter, E.H.:  Amelioration or Acceleration of Diabetes in NOD/Lt Mice Mediated by Intrathymic Administration of Candidate Beta Cell Autoantigens. Diabetes 46, 1997, pp. 1975-1983.
  44. *Tian, J.; Clare-Salzler, M.C.; Herschenfeld, A.; Middleton, B.; Newman, D.; Evans, C.; Atkinson, M.A.; Mueller, R.; Mullen, Y.; Sarvetnick, N.; Tobin, A.J.; and Kaufman, D.L.: Glutamate Decarboxylase Administration Inhibits Disease Progression in Prediabetic Mice and Prolongs Survival of Transplanted Islets in Diabetic Mice.  Nature Medicine 2, 1996, pp. 1348-1353.
  45. *Atkinson, M.A.; Gendreau, P.; Rinker, C.; Ellis, T.; and Petitto, J.: NOD Mice as a Model for Inherited Deafness. Diabetologia 56, 1997, pp. 501-502.
  46. *Atkinson, M.A.; and Ellis, T.M.: Infant Diets and Insulin Dependent Diabetes: Evaluating the �Cows Milk Hypothesis� and a Role for anti-Bovine Serum Albumin Immunity. Journal of the  American College of Nutrition 16 , 1997, pp. 334-340.
  47. *Atkinson, M.A.: Molecular Mimicry and the Pathogenesis of Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Still Just an Attractive Hypothesis. Annals of  Medicine 29, 1997, pp. 76-84.
  48. *Ellis, T.M.; Hardt, N.S.; and Atkinson, M.A.: Cellular Immune Activities in Women with Silicone Breast Implants. Annals of  Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 79, 1997, pp. 151-154. 
  49. Atkinson, M.A.: Mechanisms Underlying the Loss of Self-Tolerance in NOD Mice. Research in Immunology 148, 1997, pp. 301-307.
  50. *Wilson, S.B.; Kent, S.C.; Patton, K.T.; Orban, T.; Jackson, R.A.; Exley, M.; Porcelli, S.; Schatz, D.A.; Atkinson, M.A.; Balk, S.P.; Strominger, J.L.; Hafler, D.A.: Extreme Th1 Bias of Invariant Va24JaQ T cells in Type 1 Diabetes. Nature 391, 1998, pp.1348-1353. 
  51. *Zechel, M.A.; Elliott, J.F.; Atkinson, M.A.; Singh, B.: Characterization of Novel T-cell Epitopes on 65 kDa and 67 kDa Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Relevant in Autoimmune Responses in NOD Mice The Journal of  Autoimmunity 11, 1998, pp. 83-95.
  52. *Ellis, T.; Schatz, D.; Ottendorffer, E.: Wasserfall, C.; Lan, M.; Notkins, A.; Maclaren, N.; Atkinson, M.: Relationship between humoral and Cellular Immunity to IA-2 in Insulin Dependent Diabetes. Diabetes 47, 1998, pp. 566-569.
  53. *Ellis, T.; Jodoin, E.; Schatz, D.; Ottendorffer, E.: She, J.S.; Atkinson, M.: Cellular Immune Responses Against b Casein: Elevated but not Specific for Persons with Insulin Dependent Diabetes. Diabetologia 41, 1998, pp. 731-735.
  54. *Schatz, D.; Ellis, T.; Ottendorfer, E.; Jodoin, E.; Salisbury, P.; Barrett, D.; Atkinson, M.: Aging and the Immune Response to Tetanus Toxoid: Diminished Frequency and Level of Cellular Immune Reactivity to Antigenic Stimulation. Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 5, 1998, pp. 894-896.
  55. *Song, S.; Morgan, M.; Ellis, T.; Poirer, A.; Chesnut, K.; Wang, J.; Brantly, M.; Byrne, B.J.; Atkinson, M.; Flotte, T.R.: Sustained Secretion of Human Alpha-1-Antitrypsin from Murine Muscle Transduced with Adeno-Associated Virus Vector. Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences, USA 95, 1998, pp. 14384-14388.
  56. *Leslie, D.; Atkinson, M.A.; Notkins, A. L.: Autoantigens IA-2 and GAD in Type 1 (Insulin Dependent) Diabetes. Diabetologia 42, 1999, pp. 3-14.
  57. *Ellis, T.: Jodoin, E.; Ottendorffer, E.; Salisbury, P.; She, J.X.; Schatz, D.; Atkinson, M.A.: Cellular Immune Activities against proinsulin: No Evidence for Enhanced Reactivity in Individuals with Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes 48, 1999, pp. 299-303.
  58. Wilson, S.B.; Kent, S.C.; Patton, K.T.; Orban, T.; Jackson, R.A.; Exley, M.; Porcelli, S.; Schatz, D.A.; Atkinson, M.A.; Balk, S.P.; Strominger, J.L.; Hafler, D.A.: Extreme Th1 Bias of Invariant Va24JaQ T cells in Type 1 Diabetes. Nature 399, 1999, pp. 84.
  59. *Falta, M.T.; Magin, G.K.; Allegretta, M.; Steinman, L.; Atkinson, M.A.; Brostoff, S.W.; Albertini, R.: Selection of hprt Mutant T Cells as Surrogates for Dividing Cells Reveals a Restricted T Cell Receptor BV Repertoire in Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Clinical Immunology 90, pp. 340-351, 1999.
  60. *Atkinson, M.A.; Leiter, E.H.: The NOD Mouse Model of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Too Much of a Good Thing? Nature Medicine 5, pp. 601-604, 1999.
  61. *She, J.S.; Ellis, T.; Wilson, B.; Wasserfal, E.; Kent, S.; Hafler, D.; Schatz, D.; Muir, A.M.; Strominger, J.;  Atkinson, M.: Heterophile Antibodies Segregate in Families and are Associated with Protection from Type 1 Diabetes. Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences, USA 96, pp. 8116-8119, 1999.
  62. *Ottendorfer, E.; Ellis, T.M.; Bahjat, K.S.; Clare-Salzler, M.;  Atkinson. M.A.: No Alteration in T Lymphocyte Expression of CD40 Ligand (CD154) in Individuals with or at Increased Risk for Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism  84, pp. 4068-4072, 1999.
  63. *Roep, B.O., Atkinson, M.A.; van Endert, P.M.; Gottlieb, P.A.; Wilson, .B.; and Sachs, J.A.; for the workshop participants: Autoreactive T-cell Responses in Insulin-Dependent (Type 1) Diabetes Mellitus: Report of the First International Workshop for Standardization of T-cell Assays. The Journal of Autoimmunity 13, pp. 267-282, 1999. 
  64. *Atkinson, M.A.; Ellis, T.M.; Serreze, D.V.: Control of Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice by GAD Expression or Suppression in b Cells. Science 287, pp. 191-192, 2000. 
  65. *Wasserfall, C.; Atkinson, M.; Jodoin, E.; Schatz, D.; She, J.X.; Ellis, T.M.: Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase and IA-2 Autoantibodies in Type 1 Diabetes; Comparing Sample Substrates for Autoantibody Determination.  Pediatric Diabetes 1: 10-16, 2000. 
  66. *Serreze, D.; Ottendorfer, E.; Gauntt, C.; Ellis, T.M.; Atkinson, M.A.: Acceleration of Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus by a Coxsackievirus Infection Requires a Preexisting Critical Mass of Autoreactive T cells in Pancreatic Islets. Diabetes 49: 708-711, 2000.
  67. *Atkinson, M.; Honeyman, M.; Peakman, M.; Roep, B.: Standardization of T Cell Assays in Type 1 Diabetes Diabetologia 43: 819-20, 2000.
  68. *M. T. Falta, M. A. Atkinson, M. Allegretta, P. M. Vacek and R. J. Albertini. Azathioprine Associated T-Cell Mutations in Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology  51: 626-634, 2000.
  69. Atkinson, M.: The $64,000 Question in Diabetes Continues. The Lancet  356: 4-6, 2000.
  70. Haskins, K.: Atkinson, M.: Predicting Disease in Animal Models of Type 1 Diabetes: Lessons for Studies of Humans?  J. Autoimmunity 16: 15-19, 2001.
  71. *Flotte, T.; Song, S.; Wang, J.; Chesnut, K.; Wasserfall, C.; Kapturczak, M.; Ellis, T,; Agarwal, A.; Nick, H,; Atkinson: Efficient Ex Vivo Transduction of Pancreatic Islet Cells with Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors. Diabetes 50: 515-20, 2001. 
  72. *Bingley, P.J.; Bonifacio, E.; Ziegler, A.G.; Schatz, D.; Atkinson, M.; Eisenbarth, G.: Proposed Guidelines on Screening for Risk of Type 1 Diabetes.  Diabetes Care 24: 398, 2001.
  73. *Kapturczak, M.H.; Flotte, T.R.; Atkinson, M.A.: Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) as a Vehicle for Therapeutic Gene Delivery:  Improvements in Vector Design and Viral Production Enhance Potential to Prolong Graft Survival in Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplantation for the Reversal of Type 1 Diabetes. Current  Molecular Medicine 1: 245-258, 2001.
  74. *Tisch, R.; Wang, B.; Atkinson, M.A.; Serreze, D.V.; Friedline, R.: A Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 65-Specific Th2 Cell Clone Immunoregulates Autoimmune Diabetes in Nonobese Diabetic Mice. The Journal of  Immunology  166: 6925-6936, 2001. 
  75. *Atkinson, M.; Eisenbarth, G.: Type 1 Diabetes: New Perspectives on Disease Pathogenesis and Treatment. The Lancet  358: 221-229, 2001.
  76. *Goudy, K.; Song, S.; Wasserfall, C.; Zhang, Y.C.; Kapturczak, M.; Muir, A.; Powers, M.; Scott-Jorgensen, M.; Campbell-Thompson, M.; Crawford, J.M.; Ellis, T.M.; Flotte, T.R.; Atkinson, M.A.:  Adeno-Associated Virus Vector Mediated Interleukin-10 Gene Delivery Prevents Type 1 Diabetes in NOD Mice. Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences, USA. 98: 13913-13918, 2001.
  77. *Peakman, M.; Tree, T.I.; Endl, J.; Endert, P.V.; Atkinson, M.A.; Roep, B.O.;Characterization of Preparations of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase-65, Proinsulin and the Islet Tyrosine Phosphatase IA-2 for Use in Detection of Autoreactive T Cells in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Report of Phase II of the Second International Immunology of Diabetes Society Workshop for Standardization of T cell Assays in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes 50:: 1749-54, 2001.
  78. *Bonifacio, E.; Atkinson, M.A.; Eisenbarth, G.S.; Kay, T.W.H.; Serreze, D.V.; Chan, E.L.; Singh, B.L.: International Workshop on Lessons from Animal Models for Human Type 1 Diabetes: Identification of Insulin but not Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase or IA-2 as Specific Autoantigens of Humoral Autoimmunity in Nonobese Diabetic Mice. Diabetes  50:2451-2458, 2001.
  79. *Brod, S.A.; Orlander, P.R.; Lavia, V.R.; Brosnan, P.G.; Hardin, D.S.; Hanninger, E.; Atkinson, M.A., Riley, W.J.: Ingested IFN-alpha prolongs the �Honeymoon� Period in Newly-Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research 21:1021-1031, 2001. 
  80. *Kapturczak, M.; Zolotukhin, S.;Cross, J.:Powers, M.; Jehle, K.: Inverardi, L.;  Pileggi, A.; Flotte, T.R.; Nick, H.; Atkinson, M.; Agarwal, A.:  Transduction of Human and Murine Pancreatic Islet Cells Using a Bicistronic Recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral Vector. Molecular Therapy  5: 154-160, 2002. 
  81. Bonifacio, E.; Atkinson, M.; Eisenbarth, G.; Serreze, D.; Kay, T.W.H.; Lee-Chan, E.; Singh, B.: International Workshop on Lessons from Animal Models for Human Type 1 Diabetes: Analyzing Target Autoantigens of Humoral Immunity in Non-Obese Diabetic Mice. Annals New York Academy of Sciences  958:1-2.